Peace & Friendship Treaties

The Mi’kmaq relationship with the French and the Acadians, starting when they first arrived on these shores, was one of mutual respect and military alliance. The military alliance was believed to be necessary because of the long-standing pattern of peace and conflict between the British and the French. However, the British viewed their relationship with the Mi’kmaq as one that needed a more formal approach.

Beginning in 1725, a series of Peace and Friendship treaties were signed between the British and the Mi’kmaq. The basic idea behind these treaties (signed 1725-26, 1749, and 1752) was the Mi’kmaq agreed to cease hostilities towards British settlers, and the British agreed to not interfere with Mi’kmaq hunting, fishing, and harvesting. But, the peace alluded to in the early treaties was short-lived, as conflict between the French and the British, and their Indigenous allies continued until 1760, with the loss of Québec, and other key French areas, to the British, and the beginning of the end of the Seven Years’ War.

According to early records, Baptist La Morue, “Chief of the Isle of St. John”, was believed to have been sent to Halifax in late 1760. He, along with other Mi’kmaq Chiefs, were to go there to sign a series Peace and Friendship treaties. These treaties, signed in 1760-61, guaranteed Mi’kmaq the right to hunt, fish, gather and earn a reasonable living, without British interference.

It must be remembered that while these treaties were entered into, the Mi’kmaq were never conquered, and never surrendered, gave up or ceded their land. Mi’kma’ki is still Mi’kmaq territory.


Podcast Episode



Special Thanks

About Loretta Gould

L’nuey was fortunate to collaborate with Mi’kmaq artist Loretta Gould in the creation and inspiration of images used in the Treaty Day video, print and digital communications. Loretta’s art is spiritual and her love of bright, beautiful colours is evident in her work. Her images each tell a story of Mi’kmaq life and serve as historical snapshots. Loretta created the piece above as a centrepiece image that inspired the video’s animators, with the symbolism and bold imagery serving as the campaign’s signature.

‘Shaping the Epekwitk of Tomorrow’ Contest Rules

  1. The contest is open to all Mi’kmaq who reside in Prince Edward Island and are eighteen (18) years of age or older except for employees of L’nuey, their immediate families, cohabitants, agents or contractors.
  2. To enter the giveaway, submit your full name, phone number and email address on the form at lnuey.ca/progress, and answer the question as stated in the field provided.
  3. Contest begins on January 23, 2022 at 12:00:00 a.m. AST and ends on April 30, 2023 at 11:59:59 p.m. AST
  4. The prize consists of:
    • Basket by master basket weaver, Keptin Jimmy Bernard
    • L’nuey blanket
    • L’nuey Toque
    • $200 grocery gift card
  5. Prize winner will be selected via a random draw on May 8, 2023.
  6. L’nuey will contact the Prize winner through the email address provided on the contest entry form. If it is not possible within a 48 hour period to contact the Prize winner, L’nuey will disqualify that Entry and randomly select another Entry as the winner. Once the winner is successfully contacted, they will be required to answer a skill-testing question to be verified.
  7. Once verified, the Prize winner must make arrangements with L’nuey to pick up their prize.
  8. The Prize must be accepted as described and may not be transferred to another person prior to being awarded. L’nuey retains the right to replace the Prize with a different prize of equal or greater value if the original prize becomes unavailable for reasons beyond L’nuey’s control.
  9. The name of the winner upon receiving their Prize will be posted on L’nuey’s website, as well as shared on their social channels.
  10. L’nuey reserves the right to cancel, modify or suspend the Contest without notice, for any reason, including if they are not capable of running as planned or the Contest is adversely affected by computer virus, fraud, technical failures or other causes beyond its control.
  11. All Contestants agree to be bound by the rules of the Contest and release L’nuey and all parties associated with the Contest from any liability with respect to this Contest or any prize.
  12. All decisions by L’nuey with regard to all aspects of this Contest are final.

‘Connected by Home’ Contest Rules

  1. The contest is open to all persons who reside in Prince Edward Island and are eighteen (18) years of age or older except for employees of L’nuey, their immediate families, cohabitants, agents or contractors.
  2. To enter the giveaway, submit your full name, phone number and email address on the form at lnuey.ca/connected, and answer the question as stated in the field provided.
  3. Contest begins on December 12, 2022 at 12:00:00 a.m. AST and ends on January 31, 2023 at 11:59:59 p.m. AST
  4. The prize consists of:
    • Basket by master basket weaver, Keptin Jimmy Bernard
    • L’nuey blanket
    • L’nuey Toque
    • $200 grocery gift card
  5. Prize winner will be selected via a random draw on February 6, 2023.
  6. L’nuey will contact the Prize winner through the email address provided on the contest entry form. If it is not possible within a 48 hour period to contact the Prize winner, L’nuey will disqualify that Entry and randomly select another Entry as the winner. Once the winner is successfully contacted, they will be required to answer a skill-testing question to be verified.
  7. Once verified, the Prize winner must make arrangements with L’nuey to pick up their prize.
  8. The Prize must be accepted as described and may not be transferred to another person prior to being awarded. L’nuey retains the right to replace the Prize with a different prize of equal or greater value if the original prize becomes unavailable for reasons beyond L’nuey’s control.
  9. The name of the winner upon receiving their Prize will be posted on L’nuey’s website, as well as shared on their social channels.
  10. L’nuey reserves the right to cancel, modify or suspend the Contest without notice, for any reason, including if they are not capable of running as planned or the Contest is adversely affected by computer virus, fraud, technical failures or other causes beyond its control.
  11. All Contestants agree to be bound by the rules of the Contest and release L’nuey and all parties associated with the Contest from any liability with respect to this Contest or any prize.
  12. All decisions by L’nuey with regard to all aspects of this Contest are final.

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